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COUNTRIES BRIEFS Newsletter ISSN 1563-4108

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Somaliland's government directory

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- This page within Africabiz Online "Countries Briefs" is different from the others as it concerned two countries: 1 - The Republic of Somalia 2- The Republic of Somaliland.

The former is the official country. The one that is diplomatically recognized by the United Nations and The African Union. It is in turmoil and civil war since two decades running. No national government is in charge of global security. Warlords - even in the capital city Mogadishu - are the true "rulers". Click here for timeline

The latter, the Republic of Somaliland broke links with the Republic of Somali in 1991. It is not diplomatically recognized. However, it exists and has a national government, a flag and a national economy that performs.

It is possible to gather statistics about Somaliland's economy. That is not possible with the Republic of Somalia. Consequently, Africabiz Online "Countries Briefs" cannot ignore the Republic of Somaliland. Most of economic data and information for investors on this page are about the Republic of Somaliland. Click here for a history background on the Republic of Somaliland


Somalia map :The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
The University of Texas at Austin

- Somaliland is about the size of England and Wales with an area of 137,600km˛ (68,000 sq. miles). Hargeysa is the capital of Somaliland (with an estimated population of 0.3 million). The other main towns are Burao, Borama, Berbera, Erigabo and Las Anod. Click here to see a detailed map

Somali Republic / Somali Democratic Republic is located in Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Total area: 637,657 sq. km (land: 627,337 sq. km water: 10,320 sq. km)

Bordering countries: Djibouti over 58 km, Ethiopia over 1,626 km, Kenya over 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Population: 7,253,137 (July 2000 est.). The population of Somaliland is estimated at around 3.5 million (2003) with an average growth rate of: 3.1%. (2003)

Independence: July 1, 1960 (a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the United Kingdom on June 26, 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered United Nations trusteeship on July 1, 1960)
Constitution: September 23, 1979

Capital: Mogadishu

Natural resources: uranium, iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Agriculture productions: bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish

Industrial productions: small industries, including sugar refining, textiles, Industrial production growth rate: 0%

From January 1991 (the debasement of Siad Barre's dictatorial regime) until October 14, 2000 (the date of the new designated President of Somalia - Abdiqasim Salad Hassan - entered the capital Mogadishu), Somali had been without a functioning civil government. However, Abdiqasim Salad Hassan had not succeeded to impose his power on the warlords and tribals leaders who are the true rulers of a chaotic Somalia plagued with persistent security problems.

In fact, Somalia political, social and economic life had been marred with intermittent civil war from the inception of the country in 1960.

In May 1991, after the downfall of dictator Siad Barre, when the anarchy was at its pinnacle, the elders of clans in former British Somaliland established the independent Republic of Somaliland.

Till this July 2006, Somaliland had not gained diplomatic recognition from any single foreign government. But it does have a ruling and stable government and benefited from the economic infrastructure left behind by British, Russian, and American military assistance programs.

Beginning of 2003, Hon Dahir Riyale Kahinand (the successor to the first president / deceased Mohamed Ibrahim Egal) paid visits to several African countries' leaders in an attempt to gain international and diplomatic recognition for his country. The country celebrated its 13th anniversary on May 18, 2004

In the contrary the "official" Government of Somalia, headed by Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, has not succeeded, since its installation on October 14, 2000, to stabilize the political situation in the territories under its legal control. Rival warlords are still in charge and are dally defying his authority, even in the capital city of Mogadishu,

International recognition for Somaliland independence is may be just around the corner due to the geopolitical situation created by Airliners bombing suicidal attacks on New York City, USA, September 11, 2000. Click here for an interesting article by Straford Global Intelligence Update titled "Somalia port extends U.S. anti-terror reach. Could operation contribute to partitioning of African nation?"

Click here for Government of Somaliland's Directory.

"We are not invisible, we are here, we are functioning, and we are doing very well." Click here for more.

Due to the fact that there is no reliable data from Mogadishu, most of figures below outlined in " "Some Figures"are more or less related to Somaliland


Ethiopian troops with the "consent" of the international community - particularly the United States of America and the European Union, invaded Mogadishu (at the beginning of 2007) to put an end to the political "chaos" with the hidden agenda to remove the Islamic government from power. After, few days of "easy conquest,", the Ethiopian troops are now facing a fierce guerilla led by the ousted government adamant partisans. Watch the video below (courtesy of New York Times) to see why solving the political imbroglio in Somalia, cannot be achieved by foreign troops:

Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock accounting for about 40% of GNP and about 65% of export earnings.


1- Ex-Italian Somaliland
by Sylvia Pankhurst
2- Nationalism And Ethnicity
In The Horn of Africa
by Dominique Jacues
3- The Mad Mullay of Somaliland
by Douglas James jardine
4- People of The Horn of Africa
Somali, Afar Ans Saho by Ioan M. Lewis
5- Daybreak Is Near
Literature, Clans And Nation-State In Somalia
by Ali Jimale Ahmed
6- A Pastoral Democracy
Pastoralism And Politics Among The Somali : by I.M. Lewis, Said Samatar
7- Somali Americans
by Nicole Bryan
8- Yesterday, Tomorrow
Voices From The Somali Diaspora
by Nuriddin Farah

9- Women Voices In A Men's World
by Bidwien Kapteijns
10- Somali And Kurdish Refugees
In London / New identities In The Diaspora
by David J. Griffiths
11- Muslim In The Diaspora
The Somali Communities of London And Toronto by Rima Berns McGown
12- More On Somaliland
13- More News On Somali
by Allafrica

Click to contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum



US$ 1.22 billion (2000); 1.39 billion (2001); 1.43 billion (2002); 1.78 billion (2005)
GNP- growth rate:13.8% (2000); 2.9% (2001); 3.5% (2002); 4.2% (2005)
GNP-per capita: US$ 402 (2000); 423 (2003); 498 (2005)

Click here for the difference between GNP and Parity Purchasing Power

GNP-composition by sector

  1. agriculture: 65%

  2. industry: 10%
  3. services: 25%

Exports: US$ 187 million (f.o.b., 1999); 128 million f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Exports - partners: Oman Saudi Arabia 9.5%, UAE 45.6%, Italy 12%, Yemen 24.3% (2002)

Imports: US$ 343 million f.o.b. (2001); 200 million (2002 est.)
Commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials
Imports - partners:
Djibouti 29.8%, Kenya 13.6%, Brazil 10.5%, Thailand 4.7%, UK 4.4%, UAE 4.3% (2002)

The Republic of Somaliland, a self-declared independent country not recognized by any foreign government, issued its own currency, the Somaliland shilling (So. Sh.)




You will require a visa when going to Puntland and Somaliland, but not Mogadishu and other areas. Once in visiting territories, never go around without your passport, and any other identification documents.

For entrance to any of said countries and territories, you may sometime be asked for inoculation certificates but not often. However, it is better to have shots necessary for tropical countries such as Yellow fever.

You can register with, and obtain information from the following Embassies. Egypt, Eritrea, Libya, and Djibouti. There are other points of contact for all the above embassies from within Nairobi, Kenya. There is also an Italian delegation based in Nairobi.

Below listed are additional contacts information about Somaliland's representations abroad - no guarantee of accuracy from Africabiz Online
The Federal Republic of Ethiopia
Mr. Abdillah Askar Barkad
Liaison Officer
Addis Ababa
Tel: +(251) 1 611661
Fax: +(251) 1 518788, +(251) 1 534688
United States of America
Dr. Sa'ad Sh O. Noor
The Representative of the Republic of Somalia
Washington D.C.
Fax: +(1) 301 231 5990
Mr. Muhiyadin Ahmed Abdi Gabose
Corso Unione Sovietica 475
Torin Italiy
United Kingdom
Osman Ahmed Hassan
Somaliland Mission
102 Cavell Street
London E1 2JA United Kingdom
Tel: +(44) 20 7717 1740
Fax: +(44) 20 7717 1741
Mobile: +(44) (0) 7960287130


Berbera the main city port of Somaliland had air connections with surrounding Gulf States: Djibouti; Ethiopia and Sudan.
Daalo Airlines and several other airlines companies (Star African Airlines, Damal Airlines, service Hargeysa the capital city of Somaliland.

The Bank of Somaliland
Tel: +(253) 210005 Ext. 3000/3024 /
+(253)252-213 4500
Fax: +(253)252-213 4551
A Chartered Certified Accountants
Based in London
Issa Associates
219 Belsize Road
London NW6 4AA
Tel: +(44) (0)20 7604 4422
Cell: +(44) (0)7931 322 924
Fax: +(44) (0) 20 7372 972
Email address: Click here
Useful telephone numbers in Somaliland
Click here to review funding available to rebuild power generation system

Facilities and conditions at Hargeysa's airport are good. For your own safety the hotel staff who are collecting you from the airport will be responsible for you. As well as they are well armed, and the airport's have there own militias who keep security. For more visit ZeroRisk website

Below listed are two hotels staffed and equipped to international standard. More listing on this page

Ambassador Hotel Hargeisa
Tel: +(252) 21 38895 / +(252) 25 26666
Fax: +(252) 21 36026
Website: Click here
Email address: Click here

Maan -Soor Hotel
Tel: +(252)-225-3638/9/40 / +(252)-2-527000/2
Tel/Fax: +(252)-213/8130
Website URL: Click here
Email address: Click here

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