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Feb 15 - Mar 14, 2008
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Editor: Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum
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Dear visitor and international investor,

We warmly welcome you, if this is your first visit to Africabiz Online - The ultimate newsletter on trading and investing in 49 sub-Saharan African countries. If you are a regular and faithful reader, welcome back.


In a delivery dedicated to energy crisis in African countries, the following was written:

Most of African cities around the continent are experiencing power cut (energy crisis.) Only about 50 up to 80 percent of national demand is satisfied by power generating stations, which cannot provide uninterrupted service. Electricity power is not delivered 24 hours around the clock but during only one to eight hours per day; and cities' boroughs are serviced one-by-one in a round- turn. Even countries that have mineral resources (coal and oil) or installed hydropower dams are in the same boat.."

Even South Africa, the most sophisticated African economy is experiencing power cuts. Right now. And South African authorities are blaming "unexpected growth" to explain why the crisis is occurring and acute. That is the economic growth's surge in South Africa is having a huge impact on demand on electricity supply, and the power generating stations cannot cope.

That is a very strange reasoning, as a keen observer of the economic and political stage of South Africa knows very well that the country had not experienced any economic growth's surge for 10 years running under Mbeki's leadership.

Indeed, according to Statistics South Africa, since the end of the apartheid era, in 1994, yearly economic growth rate averaged 3.5%, and we do know that that is not enough to alleviate poverty in African countries. Particularly when inflation rate evolution is far above the economic growth rate in the range of 5% to 7%.

Reading press reports from South Africa, we know that the crisis is the result of a blatant mismanagement by Mbeki government, which discarded technical reports (dating back to ten years ago!) from the main power generating company ESKOM, warning the authorities that the country is heading for severe power crisis if suitable infrastructure investment are not carried out urgently in the energy sector. The reports earmarked year 2007 as the beginning of the energy crisis!

So, the reason given by South African authorities blaming the crisis on "unexpected" growth is another denial exercise. The reasoning of "spin doctors". So much for the "unexpected" economic growth. Such things do not exist. Any growth in any line of business results from planning. Good and efficient planning as shown by the spectacular economic growth rate occurring since one decade in the Arabian Gulf States, and in The State of Qatar in particular

Click following link to read about Economic Growth Never Originates From the Void.


List of Products and Solutions to trading and investing in and out emerging nations - and particularly in sub-Saharan African nations - is here to review.

We draw your attention to Jobs & Projects' platform that assists first, project-owners to tender for the best experts to carry out projects at very competitive costs, and, second, job-seekers to publish for free Résumés/CV to attract project-owners attention.

The Free and Pay-Per- Click advertisement platform is also the cheapest way to advertise for your business and drive traffic to your website.

Click the image for moreDr. Quenum and Associates, IBC / BusinessAfrica (TM) have decided to follow Yahoo wise business practice - that is to establish business relationship only with clients who can produce email address linked to an ISP domain name or that could be traced back against a database of valid and legitimate domain names. In other words, from now on, only ISP-based email messages can expect replies from Dr. Quenum & Associates, IBC / BusinessAfrica (TM). For more on the matter, please visit this link.

- Contributor's Guidelines are here to review. Your contribution on "How emerging nations and particularly African countries / entrepreneurs could bridge the developing gap" is welcome.

Your feedback / objection / contribution is welcome. Visit WorldWide BizCenter, and choose General Information (as topic) to create a thread for discussion. On the top of the WorldWide BizCenter page, there is a HELP link to assist you making an efficient use of the discussion board. This link also is useful

Many thanks for dropping by and see you here on March 15, 2008

Dr. B.M. Quenum


Contact Dr. Bienvenu-Magloire Quenum


- Several business opportunities - component parts of the Integrated Developing Scheme described in Africans, Stop Being Poor! are listed in following table.

1-SHEA BUTTER (5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13)
2- BLUE GOLD (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19)
3- FREEZE-DRIED PAPAIN (20, 21, 22 and here)
4- KENAF (23, 24)
5- VEGETABLE OIL (25, 26, 27, 28)
6- CEREALS (30, 31, 32, 33)
7- FRUITS (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46)
8- ESSENTIAL OILS (47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52)

9- ROOTS & TUBERS (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64)
10- FOWL BREEDING (66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76)
11- FISH FARMING (78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87)
12- BIOMASS ENERGY (89, 90, 91, 92)
13- SUGAR CANE & PRODUCTS (93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99/100, 101, 102,
14- LIVESTOCK (103, 104, 105, 106, 107,


This delivery is a continuation of the previous ones [104, 105] that laid down the basics for animal feed formulation.

Broad fattening trade's principle reads as follows: “Buy the cattle low. Fatten them cheaply. Sell them high.” Thus three main questions: (1) Where to buy; (2) How to fatten, and (3) How to sell


At following link are listed livestock breeds of the African origin
Wilkipedia provides here a long list of breeds worldwide
The following linked-site provides comprehensive description of African breeds

In West Africa, the White Fulani cattle is the most abundant herd, mainly owned by the nomadic Fulani people who occupy the belt between the Sahara and the rainforest from the west of the river Senegal to the east of Lake Chad, including parts of western Senegal, Southern Mauritania, in and around the flood plains of Niger, northern region of Benin, Chad, northern Nigeria (Kano, Zaria, Borno and Bauchi States) and Cameroon.

As already stated in a previous delivery livestock's sector in African countries, is controlled and managed by small pastoralists/herders/breeders, who use traditional pastoral methods and techniques. Herds's feeding depending most of the times on the availability of rain--pastures that become scarce or are completely wiped out during drought periods. Therefore, herdsmen wander from place to place with cattle searching for grazing pastures.

Often, the "wanderers" /pastoralists cross borders from semi-arid, arid regions/countries to greener regions or countries, invading agricultural fields, destroying crops and creating havoc that result most of the times in bloody clashes with sedentary agriculturalists.

Further, traditional pastoralists/herders/breeders (particularly in the West African region) do not consider their stock of animals as marketable products. They are happy to count livestock heads over years and sell only few from time to time. Only Mutton/ Goat's herders/ breeders sell "en masse" to supply Muslims for the celebration of the end of ramadan

The herds of the wanderers pastoralists are underfed, and therefore represent a perfect sourcing to purchasing flocks to operate a medium-scale cattle fattening business.
There are basically two general types of cattle: dairy and beef types. you have to decide on which one you want to fatten. In this series, we shall consider beef type.


Before you buy cattle flock, you need to arrange the fattening area, that is (1) establish shelter, and (2) fence it and (3) organize water tank or well to provide abundant water to the flock.

-1- Shelter

No need to build expensive barns and sheds for cattle. A windbreak will provide sufficient shelter for yearlings and older cattle. As one is speaking of tropical areas, beef cow spends most of its life in the open, using only what nature provides as shelter. An arboreus ground is an asset.
A few trees, preferably on high ground, or a shed or barn with opposite open sides will provide satisfactory shade. However, calves should have some protection from wind and rain.

An important consideration when providing shelter for cattle is to make it draft free, but not tight. Cattle give off a great amount of moisture in respiration and voiding of wastes. Structures that do not allow that moisture to escape can cause all sorts of health problems in the cattle. A good three-sided shed, with its back into the wind will provide plenty of shelter during the worst of weather. [Source]

-2- Fencing

It is an absolute necessity to fence the fattening plot(s), establishing sturdy fences as cattle are big and heavy and tear up fences that are lightly built. However, fences being expensive to build and maintain, and will deteriorate rapidly if your cattle are allowed to rub against them. Therefore, a single ‘hot’ wire (one hooked into an electric fence charger) will keep them off the fence and help preserve it.

-3- Water

If plot's) are nearby a flowing river, or if you have a well or a pond on the ground, make sure the water is drinkable for the animals. A simple quick chemical analysis would help keeping healthy animal and protect your bottom line. Cattle need a good supply of water. Typically, a cow will drink about 12 gallons / 50 liters of water per day.

If you notice a green growth of algae or moss in your water tanks, try this: fill a small cloth sack with copper sulfate and just swish it around in the water once or twice a week. For ponds, use a larger sack and pull it around behind a boat.

-4- Feeding

As stated in a previous delivery, there is no need to have a complex feed composition to efficiently fatten cattle.

Two deliveries [(23, 24] had been dedicated to Kenaf cultivation. A wonder plant that can be used for livestock feed. Having a plot dedicated to such cultivation could help keeping your fattening/ feeding cost lower.

Otherwise, one can consider establishing "classic" pastures with Digit Grass, a specie native to South Africa. It grows on the more fertile soils in summer-rainfall areas which have 400–1000 mm average annual rainfall. It is an important sown pasture species in South Africa. It has two main cultivars; Apollo and Premier. (1) Apollo produces lower seed yields, and interest in it has languished. And (2) Premier is the only cultivars commercially available. For an extensive discussion/ exposé about Digit Grass, click here.

Another pasture specie from South Africa that is a must to consider is Ribbon grass, Broad-leafed bristle grass. Family: Poaceae (Grass Family. It is a perennial grass, which is propagated by division as it forms large rootstocks and creeping stolons. Sexual propagation by means of seed can also be done, although in most instances large quantities of seed will not be available. For more on Ribbon Gras, click here.

In addition to pasture grass feeding, providing Hay is also a good feeding practice, that is most of the times neglected in African countries. Hays from harvested cereals (corn, sorghum in particular) are excellent for cattle fattening. Also, the flock will need to have additional Ground Feeding in order to gain weight progressively in a short span of time.

Corn is the best fattening cereal around. However, owing to fact that there will be competition with human consumption in most African countries, one has to use that only if there is an "excess" of corn crop in a country. Currently a rare occurrence in most African countries.

In case one can have corn for cattle fattening, it is a good practice to supplement grazing and hay consumption you may consider the following formula for 1000 lbs/ 453.60 kg

a) 1000 lbs of corn
b) 100 lbs. beef supplement
c) 50 lbs. molasses feed
d) 5 lbs. salt.
All cattle require salt for the maintenance of health. It’s normal operating procedure to have a salt block or mineral block available at all times for the cattle. In addition, it is a good practice to make available Hi-Mag” block: A supplement block that has especially high amounts of magnesium and helps prevent “grass tetany.” The disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by low levels of magnesium in the blood serum of cattle.[Source]

Next delivery, Issue 107, available on March 15, 2008, will deal with how to organize fattening operation of cattle's batches - over a 12-month period - prior to economics's considerations.

1-Handbook of Livestock Management
by Richard A. Battaglia (Paperback - Jul 21, 2006)
2- Raising Small Livestock:
A Practical Handbook
by Jerome D. Belanger (Paperback - Feb 11, 2005)
3- The Homesteader's Handbook
to Raising Small Livestock Goats, Chickens, Sheep. Geese, Rabbitts, Hogs, Turkeys, Guinea Fowl, Ducks and Pigeons
by Jerome D. Belanger (Hardcover - April 1974)
4- Backyard Livestock:
Raising Good, Natural Food for Your Family, Third Edition by Steven Thomas and George P. Looby (Paperback - Jan 2, 2007)
Keeping Livestock Healthy:
A Veterinary Guide to Horses, Cattle, Pigs, Goats & Sheep, 4th Edition
by N. Bruce Haynes (Paperback - Nov 1, 2001)
6- Alternative Health Practices for Livestock
by Michael Keilty and Thomas Morris (Hardcover - Jan 1, 2006)

7- A World Dictionary of Livestock Breed
Types, and Varieties
by V. Porter and I. L. Mason (Hardcover - Jun 6, 2002)
8- Livestock waste facilities handbook
(Paperback - 1985)
9- Raising Small Livestock:
A Practical Handbook
by Jerome D. Belanger (Paperback - Feb 11, 2005) 10- Livestock Feeds and Feeding (5th Edition)
(Hardcover - Jun 8, 2001)
by Richard O. Kellems and David C. Church
11- Raising Game Birds
by Lessiter Publications (Paperback - Jun 1986)
12- Livestock Production in Unfavourable Economic Environments:
Strategies for Attaining Sustained Competitive Advantage
by P. G. A Jennings (Hardcover - Mar 30, 2007)

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